turtle (1)



Proto-Siouan *wa-hké, *wi-hké


Crow dáakko ‘snapping turtle’ GG:40, RGG:2

Hidatsa ra•káka• ‘snapping turtle’ J


Mandan pkéʔ ‘snapping turtle’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *hke

Proto-Dakota *khe(-ya)

Lakota khé ‘large turtle’ RTC , kheyá ‘large turtle’ RTC

Dakota kéya , †khéya ‘large tortoise’

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *khé•

Chiwere khe ‘turtle’ GM

Hoocąk kée ‘turtle’ KM:1778 , kee; keecąk

Proto-Dhegiha *hké

Omaha-Ponca kké ‘turtle’ RTC

Kanza/Kaw kke ‘turtle’ RR

Osage ḳe , †hke ‘turtle’ LF:84b

Quapaw kke ‘turtle’ RR


Catawba kayáʔ ‘terrapin’

General comment

Cf. ‘turtle (2)’. The two terms are doubtfully related. Vowel development, especially in Mandan where it should be uniform, is divergent. Proto-Siouan most likely had the long vowel by position, even though direct evidence is found only in Hoocąk, where length is neutralized in monosyllables. Although there are look-alikes in Algonquian, the Proto-Siouan aspiration can be accounted for by Carter’s Law. On Catawba kasəmíʔ ‘stink turtle’ (Sa-12) cf. Choctaw kosoma ‘stink’. Other animal terms show reflexes of the prefix *wi-.

There is no direct evidence of the prefix vowel here, but *i seems likely although the prefix *wa- is possible.

Other languages

  • Tunica: kóhku MRH. JEK: Possible comparable Algonquian Etymon for PSI *hké or *pké ‘turtle’ Fox: mešihke:ha mahkwa:hke:hani ‘snapping turtle (P) and tortoise (O)’ (Goddard ______:277) (‘The obviative in Fox narrative discourse’) Kickapoo: mesihkeeha ‘snapping turtle’ (Voorhis 1988:69) Kickapoo: maskoteehkeeha ‘terrapin, land turtle (Voorhis 1988:63) Menomini mɛhkɛɛnaah (-kok) ‘big turtle; dirty-spoken person’ (Bloomfield/Hockett 1975:117) Menomini: mesihkɛw ‘legendary name of turtle as person’ (Bloomfield/Hockett 1975:127) Miami: käkkityata ‘map turtle’ (Voegelin ______:298) No turtle form in Aubin or in Siebert 1967. JEK: Notes: OP Kké=ttąga ‘Big Turtle; Snapping Turtle’ is the name of a mythical character, evidently a turtle-cum-man in the usual mythological fashion, who forms a war party and raids the enemy. Dorsey has the OP text; I have noted the same story in a Fox collection. The same form is also the term for ‘snapping turtle’. RR: In this connection, cf. mushiao ‘snapping turtle (nickname)’ JGT92-265 #8426.
Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources