tree, wood

plant

Proto-Siouan-Catawba *yą

Proto-Siouan *wiyą́•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *wVrá

Crow balá GG:25, RGG:11

Hidatsa wirá ‘tree, wood’ J , mirá

Pre-Mandan *:wrą

Mandan wą́rąʔ ‘wood’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *yą

Proto-Dakota *čhą́

Lakota čhą́ ‘wood’ RTC

Stoney čhą ‘wood’ PAS

Sioux Valley čhą ‘wood’ PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ną́•

Chiwere ną• ‘wood’ RR

Hoocąk ną́ą ‘wood’ KM:2104 , nąą

Proto-Dhegiha *žą́ ~ *ną́-(ha)

Omaha-Ponca žǫ́ ‘wood’ RTC , ðą-ha in: (zhoⁿ) thoⁿha , †ðą-ha ‘bark’ MAS:13

Kanza/Kaw žą ‘wood’ RR , ną́-ha in: ną́ha blakʔa ‘board’ RR

Osage zhoⁿ , †žą ‘tree, wood, fuel’ LF:224b , nóⁿha , †ną́-ha ‘board’ LF:114a

Quapaw žą, žǫ ‘wood’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *wiyą́

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi ayáⁿ , †ayą́ ‘tree, trees, wood, a stick’ D&S:175b

Ofo itcóⁿ, itcáⁿ, ī´tcoⁿ , †ičą́ ‘tree, stick, wood’ D&S:324b, JSS

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo wiéñ; mīéñ, miyéñi, miéñ, miyēi , †wiyą́ ‘lacrosse stick’ N, HH , yą̈hẹ́ʔ , †wiyą́ ES , yeⁿhē´ , †wiyą́ LJF

Proto-Catawba *yąne (?)

Catawba yanαpís ‘tree bark’ FGS

Woccon yonne

General comment

Doublets žą ~ ną occur in DH. žą is the general term; is found only in fossil compounds. is missing so far in Quapaw. Forms with reflexes or at least possible reflexes of *y are found in all subgroups, so this is probably the best reconstruction. Recall however, that in Dakota *r > *y if preceded by prefixal *i-, so the prefix vowel may have had a role in the development of this term even though it does not mark inalienable possession here. Both Crow/Hidatsa and Proto-Southeastern show reflexes of both *wi- and *wa-. The prefix may have been *wi- which marks Proto-Siouan animates.

Details Language Word Source