bend > fold, curl

verb physical_contact_manipulation

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *ke-ší-šE RR

Pre-Mandan

Mandan -ksísoʔš, pa- ‘he folds it’ H:121

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-kšížE

Proto-Dakota *-kšíža

Lakota -kšižA, aká- ‘bend into or round, as a piece of iron; bend something soft around a pipe; to pound onto, as a jeweler would’ EJ , -kšíkšižA, ka- ‘fold up in parts, to collapse, as the knees in giving away.’ EB:811a, EJ , -kšížA, na- ‘double up anything with the foot, to bend up the leg; to double up on, as the stockings do in hanging down’ EB:350a, EJ , -kšíža, pa- ‘double up anything, e.g. folding chairs, beds to put them away’ EB:429a, EJ , -kšížA, wa- ‘shut up e.g. a knife blade when in the act of cutting’ EB:533b, EJ , -kšížA, ya- ‘double up with the teeth’ EB:623a, EJ , -kšížA, yu- ‘double up e.g. a knife or one’s arm’ EB:643a, EJ

Dakota yukṡiża , †yukšiža ‘bend’ WM:16b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *kšíže

Chiwere luʔšiye ‘joint’ GM

Hoocąk hoiwékšiš ‘a joint (of limb)’ KM:1339 , hoiwekšiš ‘clench fingers into fist’ KM:1909 , -kšikšíš, ru- , rukšikšiš

Proto-Dhegiha *-šíže ~ *-šį́že

Kanza/Kaw yüšįže RR

Osage thishízhe , †ðišíže ‘crooked’ LF:148b, LF:246b

General comment

Cf. ‘bend (7)Quapaw dibešį́ ‘bend something backwards’ shows clearly the morpheme boundary between *k-šį- and *-že in common Dhegiha, i.e., only part of this Quapaw form is cognate. Cf. *ši-šE and Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *ke(•)či ‘bend’, which suggest that all of the Siouan terms for ‘bend, crooked’, etc.

with root-initial probably possessed the Proto-Siouan initial CVC sequence *keš-. This would account for the accentual pattern in the daughter languages also.

Details Language Word Source