bend > bend back and forth

verb physical_contact_manipulation

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *kó•že

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *kó•, *kó•zE ~ *kó•žE

Proto-Dakota *ko, *kózE

Lakota pakó , †-kó, pa- ‘crooked, bent around’ [dot over p] EB:428b, EJ , yaáṗako , †-ko, yaápa- ‘bend or twist with the mouth’ EB:617b, EJ , yuáṗak̇o , †-ko, yuápa- ‘make crooked’ EB:633b, EJ , -ko, wopá- , †-ko, yuápa- ‘knock crooked, by shooting or punching’ EB:606b, EJ , wopákho , †-ko, yuápa- , napáko , †-ko, napá- ‘bend up of itself’ EB:352b, EJ , wapáko , †-ko, wapá- ‘cut or saw crooked’ EB:546a, EJ , -kozA, oká- , †-ko, wapá- ‘dangle’ EB:383b, EJ , -kóza, pa- , †-ko, wapá- ‘push back and forth, to swing’ EB:429a, EJ

Dakota kóza ‘swing’ WM:240a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Otoe gó•ye ‘bent, like wire’ JDH , rigó•ye ‘bend it’ JDH

Hoocąk góoš ‘be crescent-shaped’ KM:457 , gooš

Proto-Dhegiha *kóže

Omaha-Ponca thíguzhe , †-gože, ði- ‘crooked’ MAS:51

Quapaw kóže ‘crooked’ JOD , dikóže ‘bend something’ RR , dikókože ‘zigzag’ RR

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi takótcĭ, takótcĕ , †takóči ‘turning somersault’ D&S:269a

General comment

The Dakotan forms have been influenced by ‘hang down (1)’, q.v. Cf. ‘bend (2)’ Mutual influence of aspirated and unaspirated roots and of ‘bent/hanging’ roots seems to derive from Proto-Mississipi-Valley times. Lakota ko shows the unextended root.

Details Language Word Source