badger

noun animal_mammal

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *xó•ka

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *xúhke•

Crow xuáhče• ‘skunk’ GG:62, RGG:4, RG , xuáhchee

Hidatsa xúhke ‘skunk’ J , xóke ‘skunk’

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *xó•ka

Proto-Dakota *xoká

Lakota xoká ‘badger’ RTC

Dakota ḣoka , †xoka ‘badger’ WM:13a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *xó•ge

Chiwere xóge ‘badger’ GM

Hoocąk ɣóok ‘badger’ KM:501 , ǧook

Proto-Dhegiha *xó•ga

Omaha-Ponca xó•ga ‘badger’ RTC

Kanza/Kaw mąxóga ‘badger’ RR

Osage xóga ‘badger’ LF:219a

Quapaw xóka ‘groundhog’ RR

General comment

Cf. ‘fox’. ‘skunk’ and ‘fox’ seem linked (perhaps via their digging habits?) not only in MRS but also in Proto-Southeastern, so that preaspiration in Crow/Hidatsaskunk’ could be due to contamination from ‘fox’. Hoocąk ɣ is unexplained.

The Kanza/Kaw cognate is from ‘earth’ + xóga. Vowel length is clear in Proto-Mississipi-Valley, but the entire Proto-Siouan reconstruction is only probable, since the Crow/Hidatsa forms may not be cognate, or may be only partially so, and other subgroups are not represented. Seeming preservation of short e in Hidatsa may be explained by preserved length in Crow. Cf. also ‘skunk’.

Other languages

  • Cf. PUA 18 *huna ‘badger’ Miller. Cf. UA ‘bear’ RR.
Details Language Word Source