awaken

verb psychosomatic

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ra-ɣikE

Proto-Dakota *-xičA

Lakota oʔíkpaxičA ‘wake up’ EJ , kaɣíča ‘wake up by striking’ EB:272a , kaxíčA ‘wake one up with the foot, or by making a noise with the feet’ EJ , naɣíča ‘waken one, arouse with the mouth or by talking’ EB:342b , naxíčA ‘arouse one, wake one up’ EJ , yaɣíča EB:618b , yaxíčA EJ , yuɣíča EB:636a , yuxíčA EJ

Dakota yuḣica , †yuxiča ‘awaken’ WM:12a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Hoocąk -xį́k, ra- ‘awaken by voice’ KM:2581 , raxįk

Proto-Dhegiha *rüxí

Omaha-Ponca thixí , †ðixí ‘arouse from sleep’ MAS:7

Kanza/Kaw yüxí ‘rouse’ RR

Osage thixí , †ðüxí LF:151a

Quapaw dixí JOD

General comment

The Lakota forms appear to have doublets with and without fricative voicing. Nasalization is not reconstructed. When there is disagreement about nasality in MVS, it is virtually always Chiwere/Hoocąk that have added the feature irregularly.

Details Language Word Source