augmentative (1)

n/a

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *-xti

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *xti

Proto-Dakota *xti ~ *xtį

Lakota -xci in: ecéxci ‘just so, exactly (as one expected)’ EB:137 , -xci in: ehą́tuxci ‘just at that time’ EB:140 , -xci in: étulaxci ‘just to, at, in’ EB:144 , -xci in: hécexci ‘just so, only so; altogether’ EB:169 , -xci in: hétulaxci ‘just at that place or time’ EB:174 , -xci in: iyécexci ‘just like’ EB:254 , -xci in: tóhąxci ‘some other time in the future perhaps’ EB:493

Dakota xčį ~ xči; -xče [Ft. Totten Wahpeton; Minnesota]

Yanktonai -xči [upper YA] WDR

Stoney htįǰága ~ xtįǰága ‘great’ [+ ablaut] PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-xti

Chiwere -xji ‘very’ JOD , -hsji ‘very; very much; true’ JGT:270 , -xchi- ~ -hji- in: étasjehge/ étaxchithke (DOR) , †-xči ‘more than’ JGT:868 , -xchi- ~ -hji- , †-xči ‘while: a great while ago (referring to past time)’ JGT:3627, DOR , -hji- in: th^íjida/ th^íhjidahge/ th^íxchidathke , †-xči ‘long time; enduring a very great while to’ DOR , -xchi ~ -hji , †-xči , -hji in: th^íhji (dahá)/ th^ihje / th^íxchi , †-xči

Hoocąk =xjį , †xǰį ‘very’ MM:118 , xdjį , †xǰį ‘about there; about that time’ KM:300 , -xǰį in: éeǰaxǰį, éeǰaxǰįnį́įsge , †xǰį ‘himself, herself, itself (emph)’ KM:302 , =xjį in: eejaxjį, eejaxjįnįįsge , †xǰį ‘just a little’ KM:274 , -xǰį́ in: eexǰį́ , †xǰį ‘how far? how long (time or space)?’ KM:1672 , =xjį in: eexjį , †xǰį ‘how, what in the world?’ KM:1682 , -xǰį in: coowéxǰį(nįk) , †xǰį ‘just that much (FW)’ KM:4007 , =xjį in: coowexjį(nįk) , †xǰį ‘surely’ KM:4010 , -xǰį in: ǰaaǰą́įxǰį , †xǰį , =xjį in: jaajaįxjį , †xǰį , -xǰį in: ǰaaxǰį́šge , †xǰį , =xjį in: jaaxjįšge , †xǰį , -xǰį in: žeeną́xǰį , †xǰį , =xjį in: žeenąxjį , †xǰį , -xǰį in: žeesgéxǰį , †xǰį , =xjį in: žeesgexjį , †xǰį

Proto-Dhegiha *-xti

Omaha-Ponca -xti ~ -xči ‘very, real’ RTC, RR, JEK

Kanza/Kaw -xči ‘very, real’ RR

Osage -xci ‘very, real’ RR

Quapaw -xti ‘very, real’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *-xti

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi -xti D&S:224a , ewaxtí , †-xtí ‘further, still further’ D&S:189a , -xti in: ĕ´xti , †-xtí ‘far’ D&S:192a , -xtí- in: ĕxtík , †-xtí ‘far off’ D&S:192a

Ofo nạ́fthi , †náfthi ‘true, real’ D&S:326b

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo pa•qti•, pāxtē ‘none (sic), nose’ H

General comment

Cf. ‘augmentative (2)’, ‘negative (2)’, and ‘near’. Chiwere and DH forms indicate the homophony of ‘augmentative (1)’ and ‘near’.

The Tutelo form is actually glossed ‘none’, but we believe this to be a typo because it is immediately adjacent to ‘nose’ pāhtēi and appears to be merely a variant transcription. Superficially similar Hidatsa ihtía ‘big’ does not belong here, as Proto-Siouan *xt stays in Hidatsa.

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