ash (tree), Fraxinus

noun plant



Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *wišpá

Crow bišpá ‘box elder’ RG, GG:34, RGG:11

Hidatsa wišpá ‘ash’ J , mišpá

Pre-Mandan *taspák (?) , *tapsák (?)

Mandan tapsák ‘ash’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *psé

Proto-Dakota *psé

Lakota pséxte ‘ash’ EB:446b , pséxtį EB:784, EJ

Dakota pse-yá-pi , †pse-yápi ‘the water ash, so called because used for making snow shoes’ SRR:425b


Hoocąk sée ‘snowshoes’ KM:2809 , see

General comment

There are many irregularities in this set which will ultimately require explanation. The initial sequence pC in MVS ordinarily implies an earlier *wi-C animate or a *wa-C absolutive form. The prefix in Crow/Hidatsa would then be secondary and the metathesis irregular, if these forms are cognate at all.

Fricative symbolism would also have to be assumed. All in all, this looks like a diffused form to us. Proto-Dhegiha *htašną́, Omaha-Ponca ttašnąge ‘ash’, Quapaw ttašną́ ‘ash’ bear a striking resemblance to Dakota thašnáheča ‘striped ground squirrel’ B-483a, but we are unable to make anything of it. Cf. ‘hawthorn, red haw’.

Other languages

  • Arikara čiNIhnáakuʔ DRP-3; cf. Dhegiha, check Pawnee
  • Proto Musk. *sinap(o) ‘ash’
Details Language Word Source