verb psychosomatic


Proto-Siouan *i-rį́•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *irí

Crow ilí ‘escape, survive, get by’ [active] RG, GG:87

Hidatsa irÉ ‘be alive’ [stative] J

Pre-Mandan *irįs-

Mandan wį́ʔrįsoʔš ‘I’m alive’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *nį

Proto-Dakota *nį́

Lakota ‘alive’ RTC

Dakota ni ‘to live’ SRR:340b

Stoney nį́ PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *nį́•

Chiwere ni ‘breathe’ LWR

Hoocąk nįįhá ‘breathe’ KM:2320 , nįįha ‘be alive’ KM:2298, MM:342 , nįʔą́p , nį'ąp

Proto-Dhegiha *nį RR

Omaha-Ponca níðettabi ‘they would let him live’

Kanza/Kaw ‘alive’ RR

Osage LF:105a

Quapaw ni JOD

Proto-Southeastern *inį•


Biloxi ini ‘get well’ D&S:200a


Tutelo ini• H , inī, enī, inīna

General comment

The second n in Tutelo may be epenthetic (a reflex of the usual glide, r) if the ą which followed it is cognate with Hoocąk ʔą-. The southeastern languages suggest Proto-Siouan vowel length, but Crow and Hidatsa, which normally preserve it, show no trace. Hoocąk niʔą́p may be shortened VV>v̆/__V apparently. (Cf. ‘arrow’ for similar shortening, but without -ʔ-.) The Mandan form is derived from underlying wą- + irįs + -oš. The final s of Mandan is not explained.

This root probably occurs, and may in fact be better preserved, in the term for ‘breathe’, q.v. Cf. also ‘be’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources