alive

verb psychosomatic

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *i-rį́•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *irí

Crow ilí ‘escape, survive, get by’ [active] RG, GG:87

Hidatsa irÉ ‘be alive’ [stative] J

Pre-Mandan *irįs-

Mandan wį́ʔrįsoʔš ‘I’m alive’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *nį

Proto-Dakota *nį́

Lakota ‘alive’ RTC

Dakota ni ‘to live’ SRR:340b

Stoney nį́ PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *nį́•

Chiwere ni ‘breathe’ LWR

Hoocąk nįįhá ‘breathe’ KM:2320 , nįįha ‘be alive’ KM:2298, MM:342 , nįʔą́p , nį'ąp

Proto-Dhegiha *nį RR

Omaha-Ponca níðettabi ‘they would let him live’

Kanza/Kaw ‘alive’ RR

Osage LF:105a

Quapaw ni JOD

Proto-Southeastern *inį•

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi ini ‘get well’ D&S:200a

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo ini• H , inī, enī, inīna

General comment

The second n in Tutelo may be epenthetic (a reflex of the usual glide, r) if the ą which followed it is cognate with Hoocąk ʔą-. The southeastern languages suggest Proto-Siouan vowel length, but Crow and Hidatsa, which normally preserve it, show no trace. Hoocąk niʔą́p may be shortened VV>v̆/__V apparently. (Cf. ‘arrow’ for similar shortening, but without -ʔ-.) The Mandan form is derived from underlying wą- + irįs + -oš. The final s of Mandan is not explained.

This root probably occurs, and may in fact be better preserved, in the term for ‘breathe’, q.v. Cf. also ‘be’.

Details Language Word Source