absolutive

prefix n/a

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *wa-

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa

Crow ba(•)-

Hidatsa wa(•)- ‘absolutive, depossessivizer, intransitivizer’ J

Pre-Mandan

Mandan wa(•)- ‘absolutive’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley

Proto-Dakota *wa-

Lakota wa- ‘absolutive’ RTC

Dakota wa- ‘absolutive, intransitivizer’ SRR:487a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *wa(•)-

Chiwere wa(•)- ‘absolutive’

Hoocąk wa(•)- ‘absolutive’ , wa(a)-

Proto-Dhegiha *wa-

Omaha-Ponca wa- ‘absolutive’ RR

Kanza/Kaw wa- ‘absolutive’ RR

Osage wa- ‘absolutive’ RR

Quapaw wa- ‘absolutive’ RR

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo wa- ‘absolutive’ RR

General comment

Length seems to vary throughout the family for reasons we do not yet understand. We reconstruct short *wa- because we have numerous examples in all languages in which the prefix has undergone syncope. The products of syncope of the absolutive parallel those from syncope of *wa- ‘1Act Sg.’ Large numbers of words beginning with a- in Biloxi/Ofo may reflect the absolutive.

Details Language Word Source