1st inclusive possessor, alienable

pronoun n/a




Proto-Dakota *ųk-í-

Lakota ųkí- alienable

Dakota ųkí- alienable


Chiwere hį•- [alienable]

Proto-Dhegiha *ǫkó- alienable RR

Omaha-Ponca ągó- [alienable]

Kanza/Kaw ągó-, ǫgó- [alienable] RR

Quapaw ǫkó- [alienable] JOD

Proto-Southeastern *wąk- (?)


Biloxi iñktạ-tú, alienable , †įktatú ‘our, ours’ D&S:239a

Ofo ǫ- , †ą-


Tutelo mąk- ? H

General comment

There is no reconstructible 1st inclusive inalienable affix. This appears to be possible evidence that the category itself (i.e. ‘inclusive’)is innovated since the Proto-Siouan period and never penetrated the bound morphological core completely. Without vowel length in MRS and Tutelo being marked, it is uncertain over all. Biloxi į is unexplained. The Chiwere form may be derived from wą- (cf. the related pronominals, above, and also ‘crayfish’). Crow and Hidatsa use 1st singular possessive with plural affix. Details of Ofo and Tutelo usage are unknown.

Details Language Word Source