tie (3)

physical_contact_manipulation

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *xtE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *xtE

Crow daxčí ‘tie up’ [dak; ?] GG:43, RGG:26

Hidatsa paxtE ‘plug up’ J

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *xtE

Proto-Dakota *-xtA´

Lakota pa_xtá ‘tie up’ EB:426b , xta, apá- ‘bind or tie on anything’ EB:88 , xtáxta, pa- ‘tie and make into bundles’ EB:426

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Hoocąk waxǰaxǰá ‘embroider’ KM:3925 , woorucak waxjaxja ųų

Proto-Dhegiha *-xte

Omaha-Ponca wapáxte ‘bundle’ MAS:28

Kanza/Kaw baxčé ‘tie up a bundle’ RR

Osage wabáxtse , †wapáxce ‘portable shrine, pack, bundle’ LF:184a

General comment

At least in MVS, reduplication of verb roots seems most frequently to be in the -a ablaut grade. There may be exceptions. This could be one source of back formations in which *-e apparently > -a. Cf. ‘tie (1)’.

Details Language Word Source