tie (1)

verb physical_contact_manipulation

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *-šké

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-škhe

Crow schí, da- ‘bead, do beadwork’ [dak; < ški] GG:42

Hidatsa ckhí, na- ‘do quill work’ [rka] J , škhe, na- ‘weave, lace, splice, knit, crochet’ [rka] J

Pre-Mandan

Mandan skE ‘tie, twine, braid’ H:211 , -skéʔš, pa- ‘he builds a fence’ H:211 , kaskéʔš ‘he tied it’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-šké

Proto-Dakota *-ška

Lakota -ška ‘tie, untie’ RTC , šká, ka- ‘tie, bind; imprison’ EB:290 , šká, na- ‘untie with the foot; to come untied of itself’ EB:358 , šká, pa- ‘loosen by pressure, as in untieing a knot’ EB:434 , šká, ya- ‘untie with the mouth’ EB:628 , škéškeke, ya- ‘untie with the teeth.’ EB:832 , šká, yu- ‘loosen, to untie.’ EB:651

Stoney -ška ‘tie, untie’ PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ru-šké

Chiwere i•réške ‘tie or untie a knot’ RR , ske, ru- LWR:26

Hoocąk -šge ‘untie’ KM:2940 , -šge ‘untie of own accord’ KM:2238 , -šgé, nąą- ‘untie with the mouth’ KM:2571 , nąąšge ‘untie, v.tr.’ KM:2730 , -šgé, ra- , rašge , -šgé, ru- , rušge

Proto-Dhegiha *-šké

Omaha-Ponca thishke , †ðiške ‘untie’ MAS:181

Kanza/Kaw gašké ‘tie a knot’ RR , yüšké ‘untie’ RR , ške, bó- ‘untie by punching, shooting’ JOD, RR , šké, bü- ‘untied, cause to come undone from weight’ RR , šké, ya- ‘untie, undo with the teeth’ RR , šké, yü- ‘untie something’

Osage gáshke , †káške ‘tie’ LF:46b

Quapaw kašké ‘tie a knot’ RR , dišké ‘loosen’ JOD, RR

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *-ške

Biloxi dŭkŭtckĕ´ , †dəkəčké ‘tie any object’ D&S:265a

Ofo atipóⁿtuska , †atipą́tuska ‘weave’ D&S:322a

General comment

Aspiration in Hidatsa and the Ofo final vowel remain unexplained, and the Ofo seems to be a reflex of -xka. The following Mandan forms show s grade of this root: Mandan škE ‘weave, twine, braid’ H-230 Mandan paškéʔš ‘he builds a fence’ H-230 Mandan kaškéʔš ‘he braided it, tied it up’ C Mandan ruškéʔš ‘he weaves it’ H-231. Tutelo lakački•hA ‘kill by force/striking’; lački•hA ‘kill by hand’ fit phonologically, but the meanings make cognacy questionable.

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