throw away

physical_contact_manipulation

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *ʔų́•-re

Pre-Mandan *:kųte-

Mandan í•kųteʔš ‘he threw it’ RTC , íwa•kųteʔš ‘I threw it’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ʔų_-re

Proto-Dakota *ʔų_-ya

Lakota ųyą ‘lose’ EB:508a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Hoocąk ʔų́ųñe hii ‘throw, trans.’ KM:3158 , ųųrehi, ųųreehi ‘discard, abandon’ KM:3038 , tʔųné , t’ųųre

Proto-Dhegiha *ǫ́•-_re

Omaha-Ponca oⁿtha ‘discard’ MAS:59

Kanza/Kaw ó•ye [R-stem] RR, MR , ǫ́ye JOD , ǫ_ye

Osage óⁿtha , †ǫ́ða ‘throw away, dispense’ [double conj.] LF:122b

Quapaw ǫdé ~ ǫ́de déde ‘throw’ [ǫ_de, R-stem] JOD

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *nų•ré, *nų́•ri

Biloxi noⁿdĕ´, nûdĕ´, nóⁿ dedí , †nǫde(-di) ‘throw away something, lay’ [prefixed conj] D&S:238a

Ofo nūti , †nų•ti ‘throw away’ [prefixed conj] D&S:327a, JSS

General comment

Cf. ‘fly (1)’, ‘lay’, ‘jump’ for other sets with Hoocąk (and Chiwere) (<*r-ʔ), Dakota ʔ, and sometimes a velar in Mandan. This looks both phonologically and semantically like a relic causative, i.e., *ʔų ‘fly (or jump?)’ + *(r)e ‘causative’. The causative has been reanalyzed as an ordinary derivational suffix in Mandan, Proto-Biloxi-Ofo and Hoocąk but has remained a (relic) R-stem in the other languages.

Details Language Word Source