think (2)

verb psychic_cognition

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *(ru-)ki-yą́

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *rukyą

Proto-Dakota *yukčą́

Lakota yukcáƞ , †yukčą́ ‘comprehend, know, guess, have an opinion’ EB:641b , iyúkčą , †yukčą́ ‘know’ RTC , kčą́ptepte , †yukčą́ ‘seemingly occupied with one’s thoughts’ EJ

Dakota yukćáŋ , †yukčą́ ‘comprehend’ SRR:629a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-rukrą

Chiwere i•lugrą, wi•rúgrą ‘think’ RR , rugrán ‘consider, judge, think on’ JGT:61

Hoocąk waruką́ną ‘go into a trance to recover something lost’ KM:3451 , warukąną ‘manage; control’ KM:2686 , rukąną́ , rukąną

Proto-Dhegiha *-rükrą

Omaha-Ponca wathigthoⁿ , †waðígðǫ ‘mind’ MAS:120

Kanza/Kaw í_yülą ‘decide, form an opinion, judge’ RR

Osage íthigthoⁿ , †í_ðülą ‘think, consider, study, contemplate’ LF:79b , wathi´gthoⁿ , †waðǘlą ‘intellect, sense, sound judgment, reverie, daydreaming, meditate’ LF:201b

Quapaw í_dikną ‘think’ JOD , dikną́ ‘try, make effort, decide’ JOD

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi kikna´ni , †kiknáni ‘perhaps (I think)’ D&S:208b

Ofo áktạti , †áktəti ‘love’ D&S:320a

General comment

Proto-Siouan *ky > *kr; *xy > *xr in Chiwere/Hoocąk and DH. Cf. ‘hawk (1), falcon’, ‘flower (1)’, ‘ten (1)’. Only Dakota and Biloxi tend to preserve independent reflexes of *Cy and *Cr clusters. If the Biloxi is cognate, then it suggests *kr rather than *ky, and shows no trace of the MVS *ru-. The root extension *-re is found only in Biloxi where it is productive. Without further attestation we hesitate to reconstruct it. Mandan most frequently provides examples, but the cognate is missing here. Cf. also ‘think (1)’, ‘think (3)’, ‘dream’, ‘hawk (1), falcon’.

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