testicle (1)



Proto-Siouan *ašų́•t-ka

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *á•šuhka

Crow áaška ‘testicles’ GG:3 , áaxuhka ‘kidney’ GG:3

Hidatsa á•šuka ~ a•šúka ‘testicles’ , á•xuka ~ á•xuhka ‘kidney’

Pre-Mandan *asųt-

Mandan asų́tka ‘testicle’ H:59

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ašų́•t-ka

Proto-Dakota *ažų́tka

Lakota asų́kta ‘kidney’ EB:93a , ažų́tka EB:67a

Yanktonai †ažų́tka ‘kidney’ SRR:64b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ašų́•tke

Chiwere a•štų́šče ‘kidney’ RR , shúnhje , †šų́hǰe ‘testicle’ JGT:171

Hoocąk šųųčgé ‘testicle’ KM:2999 , šųųcge

Proto-Dhegiha *áZǫhta

Omaha-Ponca †-ázoⁿttasí ‘kidney’

Quapaw ážǫtta ‘kidney’ JOD



Biloxi tcoⁿtkûtsi , †čǫtkutsi ‘castrated cattle’ D&S:265b

General comment

The Chiwere clusters are unexpected; šč is probably secondary < . The Omaha-Ponca, one Dakota, and MRS forms show different fricative symbolism grades. The vowel length pattern in Hoocąk suggests that initial a- was once present in this language. Ordinarily, all MVS languages agree on fricative voicing. This is a rare exception. This term seems to have undergone multiple derivations and meaning shifts. The reconstruction seems fairly secure however with the original meaning ‘kidney’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources