wise, smart, mature

psychic_cognition

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *ksá•-pE

Pre-Mandan *kšąt-

Mandan kšą́toʔš ‘he’s alert, smart’ H:121 , wakšą́toʔš ‘Watch out!’ H:121

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ksápE

Proto-Dakota *ksápA

Lakota ksápa ‘wise, prudent’ EB:318a

Dakota ksápa ‘wise, prudent’ SRR:298a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ksape

Chiwere θabéda ‘smart, wise’ LWR:30

Hoocąk booksáp ‘sober up, come to’ KM:1891 , booksap

Proto-Dhegiha *sape

Omaha-Ponca çábe , †sábe ‘be careful’ MAS:34

Kanza/Kaw sabáži ‘suddenly’ JOD

Osage çabé , †sapé ‘be cautious’ LF:29a

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *ksa•-

Biloxi aksûpi, aksûpta , †aksapi ‘look sharp!’ D&S:172a , ksapí , †aksapi ‘grow (a human being)’ D&S:213a

Ofo kfā´hi , †kfá•hi ‘old’ D&S:325, JSS

General comment

Vowel length is obscured by the transcriptions available for consultation here, but Ofo indicates its presence. Kanza/Kaw -aži is ‘negative’.

Details Language Word Source