stiff

verb perceptual_visual

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *sáta

Proto-Dakota *sáta

Lakota sáta ‘drying pole, kettle pole’ RTC

Dakota sáta ‘the horizontal stick on which the kettle is placed’ SRR:431b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *sata

Chiwere watháda , †waθáda ‘straighten out’ JGT:86

Hoocąk ksáač ‘stiff’ KM:1889 , ksaac

Proto-Dhegiha *sáta

Kanza/Kaw sáda ‘stiff, straightened out’ RR

Osage çáda, çadá , †sáta ‘stiff, rigid, stiff-jointed’ LF:29a

General comment

There are at least three other instances of kS- in Hoocąk matching initial sibilants elsewhere. Cf. ‘nine’, ‘quail, prairie chicken’, ‘apple’ (under ‘red (1b), red hawthorn’). If the k were inherited, it would presumably have been preserved in Lakota. This would not seem to be a case in which *ki- ‘dative, possessive’ would explain the Hoocąk form. The Proto-Mississipi-Valley form probably had a long accented vowel.

Details Language Word Source