steal (1)

verb social_transfer

Proto-Siouan-Catawba *-rų

Proto-Siouan *wa-_rų́•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *aša•ri

Crow ataalí ‘steal’ GG:13

Hidatsa aša•ri ‘steal’ J

Pre-Mandan *rų•-

Mandan wąrų́• ‘steal’ RTC , rų́•re ‘steal’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *mą•-_nų

Proto-Dakota *ma-_nų́

Lakota manų́, mawánų RTC

Sioux Valley ma-nų PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *mą́•nų

Chiwere (wa)mųnų GM

Hoocąk mąąnų́ KM:2001 , mąąnų

Proto-Dhegiha *mǫ(r)ǫ < *mǫ-ʔǫ (?)

Omaha-Ponca wamoⁿthoⁿ MAS:164

Kanza/Kaw wamǫ́yǫ ‘steal pl. an. objects’ RR , gímǫyǫ ‘steal something from someone’ RR

Osage moⁿthóⁿ , †mąðą́ ‘steal, filch, rifle’ LF:102b

Quapaw mądá, mǫdá JOD



Tutelo manoñ, manōma H; manóma, manóⁿ, manúⁿ , †mąnų́• JOD


Catawba hiinų́-, inų́- ‘steal’ FGS

General comment

Comparing the most conservative Siouan conjugational patterns and Catawba, the oldest form of the root appears to have been -rų. It then seems likely that the initial morpheme, *mą(•)- is the object prefix, wa-, which has assimilated nasalization from the root and in some cases undergone a little irregular vowel harmony. In such cases its identity became opaque, and we see the same prefix reapplied in MVS. Frequent reapplication of wa- ‘something’ leaves the old initial syllable in second position, and vowel length has naturally shifted to it in MVS. The DH forms look as though they have been additionally restructured recently. They should have uniform reflexes of the final syllable *-nǫ. The oral consonant, falling between two nasal vowels, betrays the reanalysis that has occurred here. Evidently the initial syllable, (the older incorporated object), was interpreted as the root, and the final syllable was reinterpreted as an instance of Proto-Dhegiha *ʔǫdo, make’, the original n was dropped and the common intervocalic glide, r inserted. The Crow and Hidatsa forms may be compounds of ‘travel’ (Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *ašÉ) and ‘steal’ (with reference, perhaps, to stealing by war parties). If so, ‘steal’ has lost its initial w intervocalically and the final vowel has been reshaped. The Crow and Hidatsa terms may not be cognate at all. Catawba appears only to have the second root.

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