winter

time_phase

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *wá•rą•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *wá•ra•

Crow báalaa ‘winter’ GG:20, RGG:37

Hidatsa wá•ra• ‘winter’ J

Pre-Mandan *wa•rą

Mandan wą́•rąʔ ‘winter’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *má•rįh ~ *má•-įh

Proto-Dakota *waníyetu

Lakota waníyetu ‘year; winter’ RTC

Dakota waníyetu ‘winter, a winter; year’ SRR:524b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *má•nį

Chiwere bá•ñį, báñį• ‘year, winter’ RR

Hoocąk mąąnį́ KM:1992 , mąąnį

Proto-Dhegiha *omą́įhka

Omaha-Ponca omą́įkka ‘year’ JEK

Kanza/Kaw omą́yįkka ‘year’ RR

Osage umoⁿiⁿḳa , †omąįhka ‘year’ LF:173b

Quapaw ománikka ‘year’ JOD

Proto-Southeastern *wa•ną́•

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi anáⁿ, anaⁿḳáⁿ , †aną́ [-ḳaⁿ ‘when’] D&S:173a

Ofo ānó , †a•ną́ D&S:321a, JSS

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo wāneñi, wānēi , †wa•ną•i

Proto-Catawba

Catawba wéra FGS:8 , wáya FGS:105 , wayα̨, we’ra, we’ru SS

General comment

Cf. ‘snow (1)’. Dakotan waníyetu has perhaps been influenced by ‘snow (1)’ and thus is not the expected mą-. The Chiwere form also incorporates ‘snow (1)’, as may Tutelo. The several attested Catawba forms only sometimes show the requisite nasalization. All may be related derivationally or they may be doublets from different dialects. Cognacy of the Catawba term(s) is uncertain.

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