split (8)

verb physical_contact_deformation

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *šátE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *cáhtE

Crow sáhta ‘forked, pronged’ GG:55

Hidatsa ípatsa’ti , †ípacahti ‘fork’ WM

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *žátE

Proto-Dakota *žátA

Lakota žáta ‘forked’ RTC , -žálžata, pa- ‘make forked by punching or thrusting something into’ EB:427 , -žata, awá- ‘make a split on’ EB:98 , -žáta, gla- ‘bite and make forked’ EB:149 , -žáta, ka- ‘make forked by cutting with an ax’ EB:279 , -žáta, na- ‘make forked by kicking, to split’ EB:346 , -žáta, wa- ‘make forked by sawing or cutting, as one end of an arrow notched for the string; to cut into a fork’ EB:523 , -žáta, wo- ‘make forked by punching as is done to a turnip digger’ EB:601

Dakota žáta ‘forked, as a stick, stream, etc.’ SRR:651b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Hoocąk -žac ‘spread out at the top like a bucket’ KM:4000 , -žac

Proto-Dhegiha *žáte ~ *žát-ka

Omaha-Ponca zhata , †žátta MAS:80

Kanza/Kaw žátta ‘forked’ [bü-, bu:´-] RR , -žátta, bü-, bu:´- ‘split, make forked by pressing’ JOD, MR, RR , -žátta, ga- ‘straddling, spraddle legged’ RR , -žatta, bá- ‘cut a notch to brand animals’ JOD, RR , -žátta, ba- ‘notch by pushing or punching’ RR , -žáǰe, ga- ‘straddle, spraddle legged’ RR

Osage zháṭa , †žáhta ‘cloven, parted as the foot of deer, buffalo or cow’ LF:222a

Quapaw -žátte, ka- ‘straddle, (stand) astride’ RR

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi útûtcatí , †-čati, úta- ‘split, as wood, with an ax; split by cutting with a knife’ D&S:262a , dutcatí , †-čati, du- ‘split an object by pulling apart with the hands; make a splinter by cutting’ D&S:262a

General comment

Most of the DH forms of this root have suffixed *-ka: the resulting geminate cluster develops regularly; i.e. *žát+ka > *žákta > žáhta > žátta. Proto-Crow-Hidatsa shows an earlier CC, though we cannot tell that it was tk.

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