split (7)

verb physical_contact_deformation

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *-šakE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *šakE

Crow -sachí, das- ‘split lengthwise’ GG:42 , -ssachi, dú- ‘tighten’ GG:44 , -ssachi, pá- ‘prick, stick with pointed object’ GG:53 , -ssachi, dá- ‘drink vigorously’ GG:42 , -ttachi, dú- ‘break apart’ GG:45 , -ttachi, dá- ‘break with mouth’ GG:43 , -ttachi, alá- ‘be cold’ GG:8 , -ttachí, ala- ‘break with foot’ GG:8

Hidatsa šakE, ná- ‘split by teeth’ J , šakE, ará- ‘split from intense cold’ J , šakE, nák- ‘cut, split’ J , šákE, ara- ‘split by foot’ J , šakE, pá- ‘crack in two with a stick’ J , šakE, há- ‘cut and saw in middle, slice, split w. knife’ J , šakE, nú- ‘shell corn, split by hand, break apart e.g. an orange’ J , šakE, op- ‘dip, dunk’ J

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-žákE

Proto-Dakota *-žákA

Lakota žáka, yu- ‘pull open or strain open somebody’s eyes’ EB:640 , žáka, ka- ‘squeeze open, as a wound; strain or knock open’ EB:279

Dakota z´áka , †žáka ‘rolling or straining, as the eyes’ SRR:651a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Chiwere wayáke , †wayáge ‘forked; enlargen’ JGT:88

Proto-Dhegiha *-žáke

Kanza/Kaw bážage ‘split, as with a knife’ RR , bažáge ‘split, ream out, punch apart’ RR , büžáge ‘split sth. by pressure or weight’ RR , dážage ‘split, enlarge a hole by burning’ RR , gažáge ‘split, as wood with an axe’ RR , yažáge ‘open the mouth wide’ RR , yüžáge ‘split something, tear a larger hole’ RR

Quapaw dižáke ‘pick, pull open, peel’ RR

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi kdutcâ´ka, kdutcâ´ktcâká; ayáⁿ kdutcâ´ktcâká , †-čáka ‘cut notches in wood with a knife’ B&D:261

General comment

In Crow, both t and s are possible reflexes of Proto-Siouan before a low vowel.

It may be that these Crow forms are derived from two different verbs.

Gemination in Crow is not explained.

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