sink > drown

verb physical_motion

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *sipE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *cipE

Crow čipí ‘drown’ RG, GG:38 , óhčipi ‘dive’ RG, GG:52 , daššipí ‘sink, cave in’ RG

Hidatsa cipE ‘drown’ J , kicipE ‘dive back’ J

Pre-Mandan *-šip-

Mandan ksíp ‘go under water’ H:121 , kšíp ‘drown, go under water’ H:122

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *spé(-CAUS)

Proto-Dakota

Lakota aspé_ya ‘cause to sink’ EJ

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Hoocąk sawaré ‘sink, drown’ KM:2799 , saware

Proto-Dhegiha *spe

Kanza/Kaw ágaspe ‘cover completely’ RR

Quapaw spe ‘sink’ RR

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi kĭduspĕ´yĕ , †kiduspéye ‘cause to sink in’ D&S:208 , kĭduspĕ´ , †kiduspéye ‘it sank in the water’ D&S:208a

General comment

Crow daššipí ‘cave in, sink’ GG-42, DEC-96 shows š grade of the root, which may be paralleled in Mandan ksip-. Hoocąk shows a reflex of *spa-re, which may be a frozen ablaut variant of this root.

Details Language Word Source