shine (2)

verb perceptual_visual

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *xą•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-xa•tE ~ *-xaxa•tE

Crow áxxa•ši ‘sun’ GG:16, RGG:6 , áxxa•shi

Hidatsa awáxa•tE ‘light (lux)’ J , óxxa•tE ‘white, sunlight’ J

Pre-Mandan

Mandan xą́t ‘explode’ H:311

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ɣąɣą

Proto-Dakota *ɣąɣą́

Lakota ɣąɣą́yela ‘clearing, as clouds’ EB:147b , ġaƞġaƞyela

Dakota ġaŋġáŋna , †ɣąɣą́na ‘thin, open, full of small holes’ SRR:120a

Proto-Dhegiha *ɣąɣą

Omaha-Ponca wanáxoⁿxoⁿ , †wanáɣǫɣǫ ‘lightning bug’ MAS:113

Kanza/Kaw wadáɣąɣą ‘lightning bug’ RR , xą́xą ‘shine’ RR

Osage xoⁿxoⁿ´moⁿiⁿ , †ɣąɣą́mąį ‘Shines-as-he-moves’ [personal name] LF:219b

General comment

shine (4)’, ‘white (1)’. Some of the DH forms are probably mistranscribed. Most likely all are ɣą. The Mandan may not be cognate. We consider here the possibility that an older (unattested) sense of ‘flash’ (cf. DH lightning bug) was more recently associated with explosions. The Crow and Hidatsa xx may result from earlier reduplication of the root *xaxa• with subsequent syncope. Crow, Hidatsa, and Mandan all show the root with a t extension.

Details Language Word Source