shake > move (1)

verb physical_motion_caus

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *xaką́•he

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *xaká•

Crow xakáa ‘move’ [xakáa/_a] RG , xačíi ‘shake’ GG:60 , xachíi

Hidatsa xaká• ‘move, shake’ J

Pre-Mandan

Mandan xką́hoʔš ‘he moves’ H:316 , inų́xkąhoʔš ‘it’s moving’ RTC , -xką́hoʔš, pa- ‘he pushes s.t. away’ H:317 , -xką́hoʔš, ka- ‘he shakes s.t.’ H:317 , -xką́hoʔš, ru- ‘he shakes s.t., moves it away’ H:317

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *xką́•

Proto-Dakota

Lakota yukaƞ´ , †-khą́, yu- ‘shake off’ EB:641a , -khą, čuglú- , †-khą́, yu- ‘shake off, as a tree shaking (from the wind) off snow, ice etc., or dew (ču)’ EB:134

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *xką́•

Chiwere gikán , †-khą́, gi- ‘shake s.t.; shake out/up’ JGT:20

Hoocąk hixgą́ ‘move’ KM:1130 , hixgą ‘be energetic, be a fast mover’ KM:3897 , xgąąsák , xgąąsak

Proto-Dhegiha *-khą́

Kanza/Kaw -khą́, ga- ‘shake, shake off something’ RR

Osage gaḳóⁿ , †kakhą́ ‘shake or rug a blanket’ LF:46a

Quapaw -khą, ádi- ‘pull over’ JOD

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi kō´kxahe´ni , †kó•kxaheni ‘not to move’ [< kV- + okxahe + -ni] D&S:240a

General comment

Cf. ‘shake > move (2)’. Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-a• may reflect earlier *-ahe, parallel to the reduction of *-uhe to -ua and of *-ihe to -ia. Alternatively, the inherited vowel should have been long anyway from second syllable stress. Mandan and Biloxi both preserve the final h. Here the usual pattern of development of Proto-Siouan *xVk- is broken by Hoocąk, which shows xg instead of the expected *k. This Hoocąk form may not be cognate. Biloxi should have ą. It is now fairly clear that Mandan xk corresponds to DH kh, at least when Mandan is not merely the juxtaposition of -ka to a root ending in -x. The La Flesche Osage entry probably represents a transcription error.

Details Language Word Source