scrape > smooth, shave (1)

verb physical_contact_manipulation

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *kʔésE

Pre-Mandan *-kes-

Mandan kakésoʔš ‘he scraped it’ RTC , -késoʔš, ru- ‘he shovels it, gathers it by scraping’ H:106

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *kʔézE

Proto-Dakota *kʔézA

Lakota kʔéza ‘hard, smooth, trodden down’ EB:320b , -kʔeza, aná- ‘make smooth with the foot by treading on’ EB:80 , -kʔeza, apá- ‘make smooth by scraping on’ EB:88 , -kʔéza, ka- ‘leave hard and bare, as wind does the ground’ EB:281 , -kʔéza, wa- ‘smooth over by shaving’ EB:534 , -kʔéza, ya- ‘make smooth with the teeth, making a grating noise’ EB:623 , -kʔéza, yu- ‘shear, clip off close e.g. the hair of the head; also, perhaps, to make hard and smooth’ EB:643

Dakota ḳe´za , †kʔéza ‘hard, smooth, trodden hard’ SRR:301b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-kʔéze

Chiwere -kʔéðe, gi- ‘scrape off (leeches)’ GM

Hoocąk -kʔes ‘scrape, shave’ [Vroot only] KM:1725 , -k’es ‘scrape with knife’ KM:1972 , -kʔés, mąą- ‘ice skate; move foot so as to separate grass blades’ KM:2181 , mąąk’es ‘shave one’s beard; scrape’ KM:3332, WL:19.7 , -kʔés, nąą- , nąąk’es , -kʔés, wa- , wak’es

General comment

Mandan has unpredictably lost glottalization.

Details Language Word Source