scrape (3)

verb physical_contact_manipulation

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *-kʔóxE

Pre-Mandan *-kox-

Mandan -kóxoʔš, ka- ‘shave a pig’ H:116

Proto-Mississipi-Valley

Proto-Dakota *-kʔoɣA

Lakota -kʔóɣa, ya- ‘bite or gnaw off e.g. something hard’ EB:623 , -kʔóɣa, yu- ‘scratch up, make rough with the nails’ EB:643 , -kʔoɣa, hutípa- ‘scoop up taking everything along’ EB:802 , -kʔoɣe, ičá- ‘a scraper’ EB:201

Dakota yaḳóġa , †yakʔóɣa ‘bite or gnaw off’ SRR:609a , yuḳóġa , †yukʔóɣa ‘scratch up, make rough with the nails’ SRR:631b

General comment

The absence of glottalization in Mandan is not predictable. And with so few cognates, the etymology is not well established, but cf. other fricative symbolic extensions of this same root, at least one of which appears to have had vowel length.

Details Language Word Source