yes (1), to be so

particle social_communication

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *ahą́•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa

Hidatsa ho ‘yes’ J

Pre-Mandan

Mandan hų́• ‘yes’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *(a)hą•

Proto-Dakota *(o)hą́

Lakota hą́, ohą́ ‘yes’ RTC

Dakota hą, ho

Sioux Valley PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Chiwere hų́če [no aspiration] GM

Hoocąk hą́, hą́ą ‘female exclamation’ KM:776 , hą, hąą ‘male exclamation’ B&S:935 , éhą , ehą ? , áhą , ahą ?

Proto-Dhegiha *ąhą

Omaha-Ponca ą́hą ‘yes’ JOD

Kanza/Kaw ‘yes, female speech’ RR , ąhá RR

Osage oⁿ , †ą LF:121b

Quapaw , †hą [Cf. hą́ži ‘no, not so’ where -ži is ‘negative’] JOD, RR

Proto-Southeastern *ahą́

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi aⁿ , †ą [female speaker] , aⁿháⁿ , †ąhą́ [male speaker] D&S:177a

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo ahá, aháñ , †ahą́ H

Proto-Catawba

Catawba hįbáʔ KS, MAS

General comment

These terms are interestingly similar, but it is hard to be sure what part of them is cognate and what part involves phonosymbolism. There seems to have been a Proto-Siouan male/female speech distinction that needs to be clarified and considered both here and among the postverbal modal particles.

Other languages

  • Tunica hon~ MRH.
Details Language Word Source