rock (1)

noun physical_spatial_mountaneous

Proto-Siouan-Catawba *į́•-

Proto-Siouan *(wa-)ʔį́•(-re)

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *wiʔí

Crow bií ‘rock’ GG:29, RGG:92

Hidatsa wíʔ ‘stone’ J , míʔi

Pre-Mandan *wįʔre (<**wa-į•re)

Mandan wį́ʔre ‘stone’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ʔį́•-

Proto-Dakota *į́ya

Lakota į́yą ‘stone’ RTC

Dakota íŋyaŋ , †į́yą ‘stone’ SRR:201a

Stoney iyá PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *į́•-

Chiwere į́•no ‘rock’ RR , įro JOD

Hoocąk įįnį́ ‘rock, stone’ KM:1636 , įįnį

Proto-Dhegiha *ʔį́

Kanza/Kaw į́ ‘rock’ RR

Osage į́ ‘rock’ RR , i’ⁿ, ‘iⁿ , †ʔį ‘rock’ LF:74

Quapaw į́ ‘rock’ RR

Proto-Catawba

Catawba į•ti ‘stone’ KS

General comment

Cf. ‘blood’ in Catawba, where t also seems to match Proto-Siouan *r. In Mandan synchronically, prefixes before long vowels regularly trigger inserted ʔ as here: V1-V2•> V2ʔ. Saponi wicco ‘rock’ (Byrd) is probably not Siouan. Crow, Hidatsa, and Mandan may have *wa-ʔį•; the MVS languages seem to favor (different) suffixes. Chiwere -o or -ro remains unexplained, but may be related irregularly to Lakota -ya. Apart from basic *ʔį́•, the Proto-Siouan reconstruction is still a problem. Independent *-(r)E seems more widespread here than normal. It’s usually found only in Mandan and Biloxi. In verbal inflection, at least, Proto-Siouan sequences of *wa-ʔV- surface as *m-V-.

Other languages

  • Yuchi ti (LB).
Details Language Word Source