river

physical_spatial_aquatic

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *awá•tahi (?)

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *awá•tVhi

Crow áaši ‘river valley, river’ GG:3, RGG:65

Hidatsa awá•thi ‘river’ J

Pre-Mandan

Mandan wą́•ta, wą́•tahe ‘river’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley

Proto-Dhegiha *wathíška

Omaha-Ponca wačhíška ‘creek’ RR , watícka , †wathíška ‘creek’

Kanza/Kaw wačhį́ška ‘small river, stream, creek’ JOD

Osage waṭsíshka , †wachíška ‘brook’ LF:206b

Quapaw wathíška ‘creek’ RR

General comment

This is one of the relatively rare instances of both DH and Hidatsa aspiration. The Mandan term, if it is cognate, may represent an older stage. If this is true, the other languages have undergone irregular syncope (and other unexpected modifications) creating the aspirate secondarily, i.e., *wą•tahe-(ška) > *wątheška > wathiška. The Hidatsa aspiration is clearly secondary. Crow seems to lack the h shown in Hidatsa.

Other languages

  • Tunica: títihtʔɛ MRH
Details Language Word Source