push (pull)

physical_motion_caus

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *-tą́•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa

Crow páasaa ‘push through’ GG:53

Pre-Mandan *-tą•-

Mandan patą́roʔš ‘pushes along the ground’ RH:244 , katą́roʔš ‘he pushes it’ H:244 , rutą́•roʔš ‘he drags it’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *patą

Proto-Dakota

Lakota ipátą ‘a prop or brace’ EB:231 , yutítą ‘pull’ RTC , okátą ‘drive in a nail or pin’ EB:386a , ok̇a´ṫaŋ

Dakota pa•taŋ´ ‘to be unwilling to part with’ SRR:415a

Assiniboine badídą ‘push’ PAS , badidą ‘push’ PAS

Stoney yudidą ‘pull’ PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-watą

Chiwere a•wádą ‘push down on’ RR

Hoocąk hawaǰą́ ‘push’ KM:714 , hawają

Proto-Dhegiha *-tą́

Omaha-Ponca badą́ ‘pull the bow’ RR , ðidą́ , ¢idaⁿ

Kanza/Kaw badą́ ‘push, push away, push off’ RR , badą́ ‘press on, bear down on a planki, etc.’ RR , büdą́ ‘pull one’s own’ RR , lüdą́ ‘stand one’s ground, take a stand’ RR , nądą́ ‘pull on sth. with a rope’ RR , nądą́ ‘ram tightly into, punch into’ RR , obódą ‘drive a nail into sth.’ RR , ogádą ‘bite hard on, suck hard on’ RR , yadą́ ‘pull on sth.’ RR , yüdą́

Osage badóⁿ , †patą́ LF:20a

Quapaw okáttą ‘drive in, as nails in a board’

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi paxtaⁿní , †paxtąní ‘push with a stick’ D&S:223b

General comment

This set and the next one may be doublets: Proto-Siouan *pa-tą́• and *pa-htą́• The second presumably developed after instrumentals became true prefixes rather than clitics.

Details Language Word Source