peel (5) > skin

verb physical_contact_deformation

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *-xapE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-xapE

Crow dúuxapi ‘peel off, tear down’ RG , páaxapi ‘break, tear’ RGG

Hidatsa rúxapi ‘peel, husk, open’ AWJ , náxxapE ‘peel by axe or fist’ AWJ , núxapE ‘peel by hand, husk, uncover, skin’ AWJ , araxapE ‘peel (e.g. bark off with feet)’ AWJ , naxapE ‘peel by teeth’ AWJ , páxapE ‘peel with stick’ AWJ

Pre-Mandan *-xap-

Mandan ruxápoʔš ‘he peeled it’ RTC , kaxápoʔš ‘he peeled it’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-ɣapE

Proto-Dakota *-ɣapA

Lakota yuɣápa ‘skin sth.’ RTC , kaɣápa ‘cut, spread open by cutting, to spread open’ EB:272 , kaġáṗa ‘strip off the skin with the foot’ EB:342 , naɣápa ‘push off with the hand (e.g. the skin of an animal)’ EB:423 , naġáṗa ‘bite off (e.g. the skin or bark from anything)’ EB:618 , paɣápa ‘skin animals, be in the habit of taking off skins’ EB:556 , paġáṗa , yaɣápa , yaġáṗa , wawáɣapa , wawáġaṗa

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-ɣápe

Chiwere ru•xáwe ‘skin’ RR

Hoocąk ruɣáp ‘to skin’ KM:479 , ruǧap ‘turn up earth with shovel’ KM:3262 , waɣáp ‘scorched in places’ KM:3047 , waǧap , taaɣáɣap , taaǧaǧap

Proto-Dhegiha *-ɣape

Omaha-Ponca waðíɣabe ‘sacred bag’ , wa¢íxabe

Kanza/Kaw baɣábe ‘skin’ JOD , baxábe ‘skin’ RR, MR , yüɣábe ‘skin, flay’ RR , wayǘɣabe ‘sacred bag’

Osage thixábe , †ðüɣápe ‘to flay, strip off the skin’ LF:151a

Proto-Southeastern *-xa•pi

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi dúxapi, duxpí, duhạpí , †duxapi ‘skin, pull off’ D&S:223a

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo qāpi , †xa•pi ‘bark’

General comment

peel (3)’, ‘peel (4) > skin’, ‘peel (6)’. ‘husk, pull off (1), flay’ shows this same root minus the -pe root extension. The Kanza/Kaw forms with ɣ are probably correct. Tutelo shows vowel length, but reconstruction of it is not supported by Proto-Crow-Hidatsa, Pre-Mandan, or Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere.

Perhaps cf. the Tutelo form (a noun) and the Crow/Hidatsa words for ‘thin’, listed under ‘flat (3)’ q.v. Cf. also ‘hide, skin, cloth’.

Details Language Word Source