open

verb physical_contact_manipulation

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *ru-šé-

Pre-Mandan *séʔ-

Mandan séʔroʔš ‘it fell apart’ H:204 , raseʔr ‘open with the foot’ H:204 , ruseʔr ‘open sth.’ H:204 , kaseʔr ‘knock down, cut down’ H:204 , paseʔr ‘push sth. over’ H:204

Proto-Mississipi-Valley

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Chiwere rušé ‘open sth.’ JGT:62

Otoe rusé ‘open sth.’ JGT:62

General comment

Chiwere also has the xé ~ -ɣé fricative grade with the meaning ‘open sth. thin or light’ (JGT92-196). If this followed the general Siouan pattern, it should have a long vowel in those languages that preserve length. Neither the addition of a ʔ in Mandan nor its loss in Chiwere is regular.

Details Language Word Source