on, locative

locative prefix physical_spatial

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *á•-

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *á-

Crow á-

Hidatsa a(a)k- [sawj]

Pre-Mandan

Mandan á•- ‘locative’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *a-

Proto-Dakota *a-

Lakota a- ‘locative on’ EJ

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *a-

Chiwere a•-

Hoocąk (h)a- , ha-

Proto-Dhegiha *á-

Omaha-Ponca á-

Kanza/Kaw á-

Osage á-

Quapaw á-

Proto-Southeastern *a-

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *a•-

Biloxi a-

Ofo á•-

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo a-´

General comment

This locative prefix is accented or long in enough subgroups to make us believe that it was probably accented in Proto-Siouan. It appears to be quite productive except in the far North, but its analogical syntactic adjustments vis-a-vis the actor pronominals have obscured the original accentual patterns. This prefix precedes actor pronouns except in Mandan and MVS languages. In Crow it is non-productive; in Crow/Hidatsa the actor pronouns metathesize to VC form before it. It is also non-productive in Mandan, where it acts like a preverb.

Details Language Word Source