nephew (2), female’s brother’s son

noun social_kin


Proto-Siouan *i-htó•S- (?)

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *i-htó•ška

Proto-Dakota *thošká

Lakota thošká ‘nephew, both male and female speaker’ RTC , thošká EJ

Dakota tośká , †thošká [female speaker] SRR:478

Assiniboine thošká ‘female’s sister’s son’ [Sask.] PAS

Stoney thošká ‘female’s brother’s son’ PAS:674


Chiwere hi•tho•škémį ‘niece’ RR

Otoe hįthó•ške ‘nephew (male speaking)’ RR

Proto-Dhegiha *ihtóška

Omaha-Ponca ittóška RR

Kanza/Kaw iččóška ‘man’s sister’s son; his or hers’ RR

Osage ihcóška ‘nephew’ RR , hcošką́ ‘vocative’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *itoska- ~ *itoski (?)


Biloxi tŭ´ksĭki, tŭksĭkiyaⁿ , †túksiki ‘male’s sister’s son, etc.’


Tutelo eṭoskaíĭ , †etoskaí•

General comment

DH affrication may be conditioned by a combination of the preceding i- and the following š. Cf. *ihtóšpa. The only other instances of such affrication preceding a non-front vowel in Kanza/Kaw/Osage involve (other?) diminutives, e.g., ‘some, short’. This term, like many other kin terms, is polymorphemic. Inalienable possession accounts for *i- and the root seems reconstructible to Proto-Siouan, but OVS disagrees on the sibilant and on aspiration, and Biloxi on the ending generally, making reconstruction of this lexeme insecure outside of MVS. It seems likely that there has been considerable analogical restructuring throughout the developments in the kinship systems.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources