near

adverb physical_spatial

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *á•ška

Pre-Mandan

Mandan askac , †askaʔš ‘near’ Will , -ska in: ą́ska , †askaʔš ‘that’s right’ H:60

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *á•ška

Proto-Dakota *ašká

Lakota ašká ‘near’ [same as iyeštuka laka] RTC , áška ‘he himself, even he’ [this may be der. of hee-ca-ška] EJ , -ška- in: íyeškalaka ‘still, nevertheless’ [same as heecaška] EB:255 , -ška in: héecaška ‘still, nevertheless’ [also šehą́škalaka] EB:171 , -šká in: hecašká ‘at any rate’ EB:169 , -ška in: šehą́ška ‘Who is this?’ EB:461 , -ška in: tuwéška EB:503

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *á•ške

Chiwere á•ški ‘near’ RR , ásge, aské, ashgí ‘near; close; next’ JGT:189 , -sgé ‘near; next’ JGT:220, LWR , -sgé in: asgé / asgi/ ashgí JGT:230 , -ske , -ske in: áske/ ásge

Hoocąk aašgé ‘near’ KM:15 , aašge ‘almost’ KM:15 , -šgé in: aašgé KM:273 , -šgein: aašge , -šge in: coowéšge , -šgein: coowešge

Proto-Dhegiha *áška

Omaha-Ponca áška ‘near’

Kanza/Kaw áška ‘near’ JOD, RR , -ška- in: áškahįga, -žįga ‘nearby, pretty close, closer’ JOD, RR , -ška- in: áškaxci ‘nearby, very close’ JOD, RR , -ška- in: áškažįgáxci ‘time, a very short space of’

Osage áshka , †áška ‘near, close by, short distance’ LF:14b

Quapaw ašká ‘near’ JOD

Proto-Southeastern *á•ška

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *áčka

Biloxi átcka, atckáyaⁿ, átckaxtí , †áčka ‘close by, near’ D&S:174b

Ofo ạktcápi , †əkčápi ‘near’ D&S:320a

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo āskai , †a•skai HH

General comment

Tutelo lacks the expected č perhaps due to MVS influence.

However, there are several sets in which Tutelo shows s instead of č as the reflex of , cf. ‘neck (2), side of neck (?)’, ‘nine’. Ofo appears to have metathesized *šk. Most Siouanists have analyzed the initial á•- as locative.

Details Language Word Source