wash

physical_contact_manipulation

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *rušá•(-re)

Pre-Mandan *-rusaʔ-

Mandan kirúsaʔroʔš ‘he washed it’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ružá

Proto-Dakota *yužá-

Lakota yužá ‘stir’ RTC , yužáža ‘wash’ RTC , žáža, ka- ‘wash away, as a bridge by a flood; to wash away by pulling back and forth’ EB:278 , žaža, waká- ‘wash by drawing back and forth in the water; to see well’ EB:525 , žaža, waná- ‘wash by boiling, as clothing’ EB:537 , žáža, pa- ‘wash e.g. a floor, to mop’ EB:427 , žáža, na- ‘wash out with the feet, trample out; R. gives To wash out by bo iling, which is a bit doubtful’ EB:346 , žáža, wo- ‘wash, as rain does the road. also, a wash-tub,n.’ EB:601 , žáža, ya- ‘lick or wash with the mouth, as does a cat’ EB:621 , žáža, yu- ‘wash e.g. clothes’ EB:640 , wóžaža, wa- ‘wash out by punching’ EB:560

Dakota -žaža PAS

Stoney -žaža PAS

Sioux Valley -žaža PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-rúža

Chiwere wa•rú•ya ‘wash sth.’ RR , ruya ‘wash’ JDH

Hoocąk žá, ru- ‘wash, v.tr.’ KM:2773 , ruža ‘wipe up’ KM:3540 , žá, wa- ‘washtub’ KM:3818 , waža , woorúža , wooruža (> wa-ho-ruža)

Proto-Dhegiha *rüžá

Omaha-Ponca ðižá ‘wash’ RR

Kanza/Kaw yüžá ‘wash’ RR

Osage ðüžá ‘wash’ LF:155a , thuzhá

Quapaw dižá ‘wash’ JOD

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *ru•čhá(-ri)

Biloxi dutcá, dutcadí , †dučá(-di) D&S:260a

Ofo tū´tcha , †tú•čha D&S:331b, JSS

General comment

The Ofo aspirate shows two things: (a) stress was formerly on the second syllable, and (b) Ofo had its own, broader and more recent aspiration rule, since OVS from would not receive aspiration from the common Siouan rule. There is evidence from Sapir’s transcriptions that Tutelo too had the extended aspiration rule which affected affricates secondarily derived from fricatives (v. his transcription of ‘dog’). The source of Mandan ʔ is unexplained at present.

Details Language Word Source