man, person (2)

noun person

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *rį́hka

Proto-Dakota *wičhá

Lakota wičhá ‘person’ RTC

Dakota wičhášta ‘man’ PD:92

Assiniboine wičhášta ‘man’ PD:92

Yanktonai wičháša ‘man’ PD:92

Stoney wįčhá ‘man’ NOL , wįčhásta ‘man’ NOL

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Hoocąk ware-nį́ka ‘worker, wageman, slang for white man’ [N.B. waré ‘work’] KM:3432 , warenįka, wareįka (> ware-nįk-ga)

Proto-Dhegiha *níhka

Omaha-Ponca níkka ‘man’ RR

Kanza/Kaw níkka, nį́kka ‘man’ RR

Osage níhka ‘man’

Quapaw níkka ‘man’ [Cf. onį́ ‘gens’]

General comment

Since discovery of the Hoocąk cognate, we tend to look upon the Dakota forms as perhaps influenced by Caddoan (Cf. Parks 1979 #14 ‘man’ (does not = person) Arikara wí:ta, Pawnee pí:ta, Kitsai wí:ta, Wichita wí:c). These Siouan forms are apparently related to each other, but not to ‘man, person (1)’.

Distribution of the Dakotan forms suggests that wičhášta is the older variant. JEK suggests -šta is related to the intensifier, -xta, -xča ‘real, true’. This would make wičháša ‘red man’ a folk etymology in the geographically central dialects, Teton and Yankton-Yanktonai.

Details Language Word Source