locative, demonstrative

particle n/a

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-ka

Proto-Dakota

Lakota -ka in: laxcaka ‘very’ [suff. particle.] EB:322a , -ka in: tóka ‘why? how is it? what is up?’ [this usually ref. to space; cf. lehąkeca, hehąkeca] EB:494a , -ca in: ecéca ‘to be so, be affected with, as with a cold or disease, to be like’ [tokeca imatokeca; perhaps better, ítokeca] EB:137 , -ca in: héca ‘such, such like; belonging to such a clan, or such a description’ EB:169 , -ca in: kákheca ‘in this manner, thus’ EB:279 , -ca in: léca ‘such as this’ EB:323 , -ca in: léceca ‘like this, such as’ EB:323 , -ca in: séca ‘as, though, seemingly’ EB:453a , -ca in: tohą́keca ‘How long?’ EB:493 , -ca in: itókeca ‘to be altered, changed; to be affected by in any way’ EB:241 , -ca in: tónakeca ‘some, a few. also, interrog. how many, how much?’ EB:499

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Hoocąk -gá in: hagá ‘time, occurrence, instance’ KM:554 , -ga in: haga ‘how many, how much? quite a number’ KM:1677 , -ga in: jaaną́ga ‘that much’ KM:4006 , -ga in: jaanąga , -ga in: žeeną́ga , -ga in: žeenąga

Proto-Dhegiha *-ka

Kanza/Kaw -ga in: šéga, šegá ‘yonder, in that vi. place’ [JOD] RR , -gá in: yegá ‘here, right here’ RR , -gá- in: yegáha ‘here, right here’ RR

Osage -ka in: ṭsé-ga , †-ka ‘recently; anew; early; new, as a new blanket, a new robe’ LF:158b

Quapaw -šeka ‘there’ RR

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi -ká in: yañká , †-ká ‘when’ D&S:290a , -ká in: tuká , †-ká ‘that way; in that direction’ D&S:281b

Proto-Catawba

Catawba -kát in: hukát , †-kát ‘now’ KS:168 , -ká in: hαkáte , †-ká ‘now indeed’ KS:168 , ya•kəwɛʔ , †-kə- ‘that woman’ [†-kə- in “ya•kəwɛʔ”] KS:225 , -ką´ in: dé•kα´ , †-ką´ ‘that’s me’ KS:225 , -ką in: mónαkα , †-ką ‘the ground’ KS:225 , -ką in: ókα , †-ką ‘he’ KS:125 , -ka in: tci•(ka) , †-ka ‘there’ KS:227

General comment

The Catawba entries appear to be quite flexible morphotactically and are listed with both the prefixed and suffixed Siouan forms which are best considered distinct morphemes.

Details Language Word Source