lightning, sheet (?)

noun natural_force_weather


Proto-Siouan *ąpV

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ą́pV


Hoocąk ǰaaǰą́p ‘lightening (sic)’ KM:1675 , jaająp ‘lightning’ KM:1694 , hooǰą́p ‘lightning bolt’ KM:3342 , hoojąp , waką́jóoǰą́p , wakąjoojąp (= wakąja hoojąp)

Proto-Dhegiha *rü-ą́pa

Omaha-Ponca thióⁿba ‘sheet lightning’ MAS:113

Kanza/Kaw yüǫ́ba ‘sheet lightning’ RR

Osage thihóⁿba , †ðühą́pa ‘lightning’ LF:147a

Quapaw dią́ba ‘sheet lightning’ JOD



Ofo ạmptíyaho , †ąptí•yaho ‘it thunders’ D&S:321a , ạmtcạ´ki , †ąpčə́ki ‘it lightens (sic)’ D&S:321

General comment

In Ofo Swanton refers to lightning, but he does not use the word. In the Ofo MS -ing is written above lighten^s with a caret. Given Swanton’s assimilated nasal transcription with m, the p must be underlying. The Ofo form may contain an incorporated form of ‘daylight’ ạnp- minus the OVS ną- prefix that yields nąp- in isolation. The other terms, meaning ‘lightning’ rather than ‘thunder’, pretty clearly incorporate reflexes of ‘daylight’, whether historically or by folk etymology. Lakota tųwą́pi in wakhį́yą tųwą́pi refers to the “Thunderbirds’ glance”; the term consists of tųwą́ ‘to look at’ and the -pi pluralizer. Thus the form does not belong with this set.

Details Language Word Source