knock (1)

verb physical_contact_impact

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *táxE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *táxxE

Crow táxxe ‘make loud noise, bang (stative)’ RG , tattaxí ‘rattle’ GG:57

Hidatsa táxxE ‘tap’ [caus] J , taxxE, pá- ‘poke, pick at’ J , taxxE, náka- ‘knock, hammer, cut little pieces of wood, pound’ J , taxxE, ná- ‘gnaw’ J , taxxE, nú- ‘shake door knob noisily; chip; tamper’ J , tátaxxE, ha- ‘notch, whittle, get all meat out by knife’ J , taxxE, ara- ‘prance, stalk, walk with short, fast steps’ J , táxxahe ‘make a cracking noise’

Pre-Mandan *tax-

Mandan táxoʔš ‘he bellows, makes a loud noise’ H:246 , ratáxoʔš ‘he cries’ H:246 , katáxoʔš ‘he knocks’ H:246

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *taxe

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Chiwere wadáye ‘tap’ JGT:251

Hoocąk ǰax ‘splash’ KM:1691 , jax

Proto-Dhegiha *-taɣe

Kanza/Kaw gadádaɣe ‘knock repeatedly, woodpecker’ RR , daɣe, bó- ‘flip’ JOD, RR

Osage gadádaxe , †katátaɣe ‘knock’ LF:44a , hithádadaxe , †hiðátataɣe ‘chatterer, screech owl’

Quapaw póttaɣe ‘flip, w. forefinger/thumb’ RR

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi tax, tatáxĕdí, éṭaxkiyé , †taxe-di ‘patter, drumming sounds’ D&S:269a

General comment

This root probably involves sound symbolism. Hoocąk has a complete fricative ablaut set, cf. ‘knock (2)’. Crow/Hidatsa gemination is not explained unless it represents an earlier reduplication pattern.

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