jump over

verb physical_motion



Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *tʔąpe

Hidatsa uʔa• ‘climb’ J

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *aʔų


Lakota aʔųą ‘pass over’ EB:97a


Chiwere atʔą́we ‘jump over’ LWR:2, LWR:59

Hoocąk tʔąąp ‘jump’ KM:3022 , t’ąąp ‘come into a village suddenly, as a war party’ , hotʔąp , hot’ąp


Omaha-Ponca uáⁿsi , †o-ą́si ‘jump’ , aáⁿsu- , †a-ą́su- ‘jump over’

General comment

Cf. ‘fly (1)’, ‘lay’ for similar consonantism. Hoocąk and Chiwere t is apparently a reflex of epenthetic *r that was inserted to separate vowels in 1st and 2nd person forms of these verbs. In these forms ʔ is not ordinarily present. The citation/3rd person forms seem to contain the organic plus the analogical r, which, as elsewhere, > t when in a cluster with a laryngeal (h or ʔ). Omaha-Ponca áąsi could be a compound of áąp + (p)si (both meaning ‘jump’).

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources