verb physical_motion


Proto-Siouan *psí-kE

Pre-Mandan *:pšik (?)

Mandan pšik ‘to push’ H:154 , rápšikoʔš ‘he pushes away by foot’ H:154

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *psíkE

Proto-Dakota *psíčA

Lakota psíča ‘jump’ RTC , -psípsiča, pa- ‘push and make fly as chips’ EB:432 , -psiča, aká- ‘make jump etc. on by striking, as by splashing water on one’ EB:69 , -psíča, na- ‘skip, hop, jump around’ EB:355 , -psíča, wa- ‘make chips fly’ EB:548 , -psiča, wayú- ‘make jump’ EB:571 , -psíča, ya- ‘cause to skip or jump by biting’ EB:626

Stoney pθíǰa ~ pθíya PAS

Sioux Valley psíča PAS


Hoocąk nąąsík ‘use feet to control something, stop something rolling with the foot’ KM:2222 , nąąsik ‘be agile, energetic’ JWE:92 , wasisík ‘any active game’ KM:1836 , wasisik , kíisik , kiisik

Proto-Dhegiha *síke, *wasísike

Omaha-Ponca †wasísige ‘active’

Kanza/Kaw wasísige ‘active, as a warrior’ RR , nąsísige ‘dart rapidly’ RR , nąsíge ‘kick aside’ RR , basíge ‘knock aside, make fly as water’ JOD, RR , büsíge ‘press, as the sap from wood’ RR , dásige ‘sparks, give off, spit coals’ RR , dásisige ‘sparks or coals, to give off frequently’ MR, RR , nąsíge ‘walk on gravel and kick it’ JOD, RR , nąsísige ‘move or dart rapidly at short intervals’

Osage noⁿçíge, nǫsíke , †nąsíke ‘lift or kick aside with foot’ LF:113a , waçíçige , †wasísike ‘brave, valorous, valiant, active; prowess’ LF:186a

Quapaw wasísike ‘brave’ JOD



Biloxi ptce, pĭtcĕ´, ptcedí, pĭtcédi , †pičé-di ‘jump, leap, as a grasshopper, sturgeon, etc.’ D&S:248b , ptcedí, pĭtcédi , †pičé-di D&S:249

General comment

Biloxi may be related via fricative symbolism. Cf. the ‘snowshoe’ words, also ‘brave (1)’, ‘brave (2)’, ‘brave (3)’. MVS shows that this form was typically reduplicated. As with ‘hard > strong, ripe’, MVS has added a root extension -ke. Biloxi, assuming relatedness, suggests that a reconstruction with an initial syllable vowel may possibly be justified, e.g., *pisí-kE.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources