interrogative, indefinite > something, what

pronoun n/a

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *ta•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *ta• J

Crow saa- in: saakée ‘what did he say?’ GG:66 , saa- in: sáapaa ‘what’ GG:66 , sa- in: sapée ‘who’ GG:66 , saa- in: saapií ‘why’ GG:66 , saa- in: sá•we ‘how many, so many, several’ L:159

Hidatsa ta•- in: ta•ʔ ‘what?’ [< X + ʔ ‘ques. marker] J , ta•- in: ta•ka•ʔ ‘what?’ [< X + Dem. †ka + ʔ question marker] J , ta•- in: ta•pato•k ‘what could it be?’ [-tha• ‘not’] J , ta•- in: ta•paʔ ‘what is it?’ J , ta•- in: ta•pé•ʔ ‘who is it?’ J , ta- in: tapé•wa ‘who could it be?’ J , tá- in: táhawia ‘how many times?, several times’ H&V , ta•- in: ta•wiʔ ‘how much, how many?, ʔ ques. marker’ J , tá•pa- in: tá•patha• ‘trivial, inconsequential’’ J

Pre-Mandan

Mandan ta ‘what’ [general interrogative] H:483 , tá- ‘what thing’ H:483 , tá- in: táha ‘when’ H:483 , ta- ‘how’ H:483 , ta- in: taxkó , ta- , ta- in: tašká

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ta(•)

Proto-Dakota

Lakota tá- in: táku ‘something’ [also, tákowe] EB:475 , tá- in: táku ‘What?’ EB:475 , tá- in: tákušni ‘nothing’ EB:476 , tá- in: tákuwe ‘Why, What for?’ EB:476

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ta•

Chiwere ta ‘which? someone’ JGT:3730 , da- ‘what; something; what?’ JGT:614 , da- in: dagú ‘what did he say?’ JGT:615 , da- ‘nothing: there’s nothing’ JGT:617 , da- in: dagú^é (je) ‘something; whatever (is)’ JGT:620 , da- ‘which one?’ JGT:3776 , da- in: dagúhñyinge ‘which; which?’ JGT:651 , da- ‘so many it is’ JGT:653 , da- in: dagúre ‘when’ LWR:29, LWR:75 , tá- ‘sometimes’ JGT:3812, LWR , tá- in: tánahá^e ‘when?’ JGT:3810 , da- ‘how is it? what’s the matter? I don’t know and don’t care!’ JGT:687 , da- in: danáha/ danáhaje ‘whose?’ JGT:4608 , dá- , dá- in: dánahe/ dáhnahe , ta- , ta- in: tatãnda, tatãda , tá- , tá- in: tátan^so , tá- , tá- in: tátanda , dá- , dá- in: dáthge/ dáthke (DOR)/ dáhge / dá , -ta- , -ta- in: wayéretawe

Hoocąk ǰaa- in: ǰaagú ‘what? which? beg pardon?’ [CS 67 4,5 quite a number] KM:1668 , jaa- in: jaagu ‘why?’ [general question introducer; can inflect for 1st and 2nd person Undergoer] KM:1669 , ǰaa- in: ǰaagú’ų ‘what kind (of a one)?’ KM:1670 , jaa- in: jaagu’ų ‘when?’ KM:1673 , ǰaa- in: ǰaagúižą ‘how many, how much?’ KM:1677 , jaa- in: jaaguižą ‘how often? how many times?’ KM:1678 , ǰaa- in: ǰaaǰą́ną ‘how?’ KM:1682 , jaa- in: jaająną ‘what kind?’ KM:1683 , ǰaa- in: ǰaaną́ga , jaa- in: jaanąga , ǰaa- in: ǰaaną́hą , jaa- in: jaanąhą , ǰaa- in: ǰaasgé , jaa- in: jaasge , ǰaa- in: ǰaasgéra , jaa- in: jaasgera

Proto-Dhegiha *tá-

Omaha-Ponca -dá- in: edádą ‘what’ JEK , -dá- in: įdádą ‘what’ JEK , -dá- in: dádą ‘what, something’ JEK

Kanza/Kaw dádą ‘what, something’ RR

Osage dádoⁿ , †tátą ‘what, interrogation’ LF:34a

Quapaw tátą ‘what?’ RR

Proto-Catawba

Catawba ta- in: tame ‘when (interrogative)’ [táyo cidó? = where are you going?] KS:248 , tá- in: táyo ‘where’ [nəneya tárenɛ? = where’s your father?] KS:248 , tá- in: tárenɛ ‘where’ KS:248 , ta- ‘where you’ KS:53 , ta- in: taíyə ‘something’ KS:208 , tα- in: tαpα ‘how’ KS:133 , , tα̨

General comment

*ta• appears uncompounded in Hidatsa, Mandan, and Chiwere, in all of which it also appears with a variety of suffixes. That derivation from *ta• was early is evident from cognate derivations in Catawba, Hidatsa and others. Chiwere variation is transcriptional only.

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