ice

noun physical_substance

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *(wa)rų•xe

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *wVrúxV

Crow bulúxa ‘ice’ RG, GG:35, RGG:65

Hidatsa warúxi ~ wirúxi ‘ice’ J , marúxi ~ mirúxi

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *nų́xe, *Rų́xe

Proto-Dakota *čháɣa (?)

Lakota čháɣa ‘ice’ RTC

Stoney čháɣa PAS

Sioux Valley čháɣa PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *nų́•ɣe

Chiwere nų́xe GM

Hoocąk nų́ųx ‘be icy’ KM:2398 , nųųx KM:2383 , nų́ųɣašará , nųųx hašara

Proto-Dhegiha *Rǫ́ɣe ~ *Róɣe

Omaha-Ponca núxe ‘ice’ MAS:100

Kanza/Kaw nǫ́xe ‘ice’ RR

Osage nóⁿxe , †nǫ́ɣe ‘ice’ LF:117b

Quapaw toɣátte ‘ice’ RR , tóɣe ‘ice’ JOD

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo noñhi , †nųxi ‘ice’ H , nūŋ´ɣ , †nų́•ɣ ‘ice’ H , nâñq-lu-b’ , †nąxlupa ‘icy’ H , nōɣ , †nų•ɣ ‘hail’ H

Proto-Catawba

Catawba mǫhe• ‘ice’ KS, MAS , mǫ́hi• KS, SS

General comment

Dakota is possibly cognate, although the initial consonant and the first vowel are irregular. Pre-Dakota secondary clusters *wy´-, *wr´-, and *wR´- may all become čh´-. This may be the regular set for *R preceding a nasal vowel. The Quapaw form recorded by JOD is a denasalized version of the expected *nǫ́ɣe. Catawba suggests a possible dissimilation here, cf. ‘sitting, be; sitting positional’. Tutelo nâñqlub ‘icy’ (Hw.) and nōɣhail’ (H) may contain the root for ‘ice’, and if so suggest that the form is bimorphemic.

Details Language Word Source