ford, wade



Proto-Siouan *yo_phe


Crow híilappee ‘ford a river’ RG, GG:48

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *yo_phe

Proto-Dakota *čho_phá

Lakota copá , †čhophá ‘wade, go in the water’ EB:133b

Dakota ćopá ‘wade, go in the water’ SRR:103b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *yowe

Chiwere niyuwe ‘wade’ JOD , yówe GM

Hoocąk nįoowé < nįį howe JWE , nįowe < nįį howe

Proto-Dhegiha *žóphe

Omaha-Ponca júhe , †žóhe ‘ford’

Kanza/Kaw žophé ‘ford’ RR

Osage zhúpshe , †žó_phe ‘to wade, as in water’ LF:228b , opshé , †ophé ‘a ford’ LF:123a

Quapaw ánižóhe ‘ford a stream’ RR

General comment

This is an old compound. The bare root occurs in the Osage nominal, and possibly in Winnebago. Cf. ‘enter (3)’, ‘water’. Omaha-Ponca †žohé ‘ford’ (JOD), Osage †žó_he ‘to ford’ (LF-228b), and Quapaw †ánižóhe ‘ford a stream’ (JOD) do not match the other forms (as do the expected forms in phe), but nonetheless seem to be related. On the Crow form, cf. ‘bathe’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources