fog (2) > smoke

noun natural_force_weather

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *pʔohe

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *puhʔe•

Crow púaee ‘smoke, steam’ RG, GG:54, RGG:49

Hidatsa puʔé• ‘steam, vapor’ J , piʔé• ‘smoke’ J

Pre-Mandan

Mandan píʔhe ‘smoke’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *pʔó

Proto-Dakota *pʔó

Lakota pʔó ‘fog’ RTC , pʔó, ka- ‘raise dust, as in sweeping’ EB:288 , pʔó, na- ‘raise dust with the feet, as horses do walking etc.’ EB:356 , pʔó, ya- ‘make steam with the mouth, as in breathing in cold air’ EB:626

Sioux Valley pʔó PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-pʔó

Chiwere lapʔó ‘to smoke’ GM

Hoocąk rapʔó ‘puff smoke from mouth’ KM:2413 , rap’o

Proto-Dhegiha *pʔó

Omaha-Ponca p’uthoⁿ , †pʔóðą ‘steam’ MAS:164

Kanza/Kaw pʔó ‘steam’ RR

Osage p̣ʔóthoⁿ , †pʔóðǫ ‘steam’ LF:129b

General comment

Mandan pí•hoʔš ‘it’s steaming’ does not seem to belong with this set as Mandan i is not accounted for. The Hidatsa form with pi- is probably a borrowing from Mandan.

Details Language Word Source