up, upwards, upper

physical_spatial

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *wą•-

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *wá•ku

Crow báaku ‘above’ GG:65 , bá•kuko•n ‘above’ L:45 , bá•ko, bá•ku ‘high, upper; above’ L:44

Hidatsa má•ku ‘high’ J , má•kuka ‘way up’ J

Pre-Mandan *wake (?)

Mandan hiwáke ‘upper lip’ H:75

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *wą́k-

Proto-Dakota *wąkhá

Lakota wąkáb, wąkapa , †wąkhá wąká ‘above’ EB:788a, EB:546b , wąkápaya , †wąkhá wąká ‘high up, in a high position’ EB:541 , wąkátahą , †wąkhá wąká ‘from above’ EB:542 , wąkátkiya , †wąkhá wąká ‘upward’ EB:542 , wąkátu , †wąkhá wąká ‘up above, high up’ EB:542 , wąkátuya , †wąkhá wąká ‘high up’ EB:542

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *wąk-

Chiwere mą́gli ‘upward’ GM

Hoocąk wąąg ‘upper region’ , wąąk KM:3600 , wąąk , wąąk , -wąk , wąąk

Proto-Dhegiha *mą-

Kanza/Kaw mą́le ‘extending upwards’

Osage †mą́le ‘vertical, the beginning’ LF:98a , †ámąle ‘plant a pole upright’ LF:13a , ámoⁿshi , †ámąši ‘up, upstairs’ LF:13a

Quapaw mąší ‘upper, upward’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *mą-

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi aⁿtá , †ątá ‘hold the head up’ D&S:178b

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo matóⁿi, matoi, maⁿṭoⁿ´oⁿq , †mątǫ́i ‘sky’ JOD

General comment

Biloxi, Tutelo lack expected reflexes of -k and so may not be cognate. DH would lose -k normally in a cluster. The presence of Hoocąk w rather than m preceding a nasal vowel is strange here. For phonological treatment of an apparently parallel form, v. ‘chert, flint’, etc.

Details Language Word Source