exist > born

verb existence

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *htų

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *watú

Crow biší ‘be born’ [stative] RG

Hidatsa watú• ‘there is’ J , matú• ‘be born’ J , í•watu•

Pre-Mandan

Mandan į́•tu ‘be born’ [transitive formed with causative] RTC , į́ʔtu ‘birthday’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *htų́

Proto-Dakota *thų́

Lakota thų́ ‘give birth to, have, possess, acquire’ EB:499b

Dakota tǫŋ , †thų́ ‘possess, acquire, give birth to’ SRR:477b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *thų́

Chiwere thų́ ‘have inalienably’ GM

Hoocąk čų́ų ‘be plentiful, available, exist’ KM:291 , cųų ‘bear child, give birth’ KM:290 , čų́ų , cųų

Proto-Dhegiha *htą

Omaha-Ponca tʻaⁿ , †ttą́ ‘have’ JOD

Kanza/Kaw ttą ‘have’ RR

Osage ṭoⁿ , †htą ‘possess’ LF:155b

Quapaw ttǫ, ttą ‘possess, have’ JOD

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo gitoñnēsel , †kí•tų ‘theirs’

Saponi mihu mima mikito , †-to ‘my dear wife’ F

General comment

Lack of nasalization in Mandan is unusual, unless the term has been borrowed from Hidatsa. Crow i is unexplained. This verb is active in most languages but stative in a few.

Details Language Word Source