emphatic, contrastive, but

enclitic n/a

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *-šV

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa

Hidatsa ‘def. article; forms proper nouns’ J , in: haš ‘but’ J , in: mí•raš; ní•raš ‘myself (emph.), yourself’ J , in: to•haruš ‘somewhat, surely’ J , in: tó•šaruš ‘later’ J

Pre-Mandan

Mandan -s ‘definite article’ H:478

Proto-Mississipi-Valley

Proto-Dakota

Lakota ‘emphatic suffix’ [same as héce, emph] RTC , in: ‘is it; if, supposing that something else cannot be done’ [cf. tokel] EB:143 , in: héceš ‘although, but’ EB:170 , in: kʔéyaš, keoʔeyaš ‘but, although’ EB:320 , in: kheš ‘indeed, truly, of course’ EB:298a , in: lakháš ‘as’ EB:322b , in: tókheš ‘but’ EB:497a , in: tkháš RTC

Details Language Word Source